ISSN  0890-5487 CN 32-1441/P

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Multi-Innovation Gradient Iterative Locally Weighted Learning Identification for A Nonlinear Ship Maneuvering System
Wei-wei BAI, Jun-sheng REN, Tie-shan LI
Accepted Manuscript , doi: 10.1007/s13344-017-0000-0
[Abstract](10) [PDF 4497KB](3)
This paper explores a highly accurate identification modeling approach for the ship maneuvering motion with full-scale trial. A multi-innovation gradient iterative (MIGI) approach is proposed to optimize the distance metric of locally weighted learning (LWL), and a novel non-parametric modeling technique is developed for a nonlinear ship maneuvering system. This proposed method's advantages are as follows: first, it can avoid the unmodeled dynamics and multicollinearity inherent to the conventional parametric model; second, it eliminates the over-learning or under-learning and obtains the optimal distance metric; and third, the MIGI is not sensitive to the initial parameter value and requires less time during the training phase. These advantages result in a highly accurate mathematical modeling technique that can be conveniently implemented in applications. To verify the characteristics of this mathematical model, two examples are used as the model platforms to study the ship maneuvering.

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2018, 32(2): 1-1.  
[Abstract](9) [FullText HTML](6) [PDF 15KB](5)
Experimental Study on New Multi-Column Tension-Leg-Type Floating Wind Turbine
Yong-sheng ZHAO, Xiao-he SHE, Yan-ping HE, Jian-min YANG, Tao PENG, Yu-feng KOU
2018, 32(2): 123-131.   doi: 10.1007/s13344-018-0014-0
[Abstract](11) [FullText HTML](7) [PDF 4940KB](2)
Deep-water regions often have winds favorable for offshore wind turbines, and floating turbines currently show the greatest potential to exploit such winds. This work established proper scaling laws for model tests, which were then implemented in the construction of a model wind turbine with optimally designed blades. The aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, and elastic characteristics of the proposed new multi-column tension-leg-type floating wind turbine (WindStar TLP system) were explored in the wave tank testing of a 1:50 scale model at the State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering at Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Tests were conducted under conditions of still water, white noise waves, irregular waves, and combined wind, wave, and current loads. The results established the natural periods of the motion, damping, motion response amplitude operators, and tendon tensions of the WindStar TLP system under different environmental conditions, and thus could serve as a reference for further research.
A Novel Wake Oscillator Model for Vortex-Induced Vibrations Prediction of A Cylinder Considering the Influence of Reynolds Number
Xi-feng GAO, Wu-de XIE, Wan-hai XU, Yu-chuan BAI, Hai-tao ZHU
2018, 32(2): 132-143.   doi: 10.1007/s13344-018-0015-z
[Abstract](7) [FullText HTML](5) [PDF 3000KB](1)
It is well known that the Reynolds number has a significant effect on the vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of cylinders. In this paper, a novel in-line (IL) and cross-flow (CF) coupling VIV prediction model for circular cylinders has been proposed, in which the influence of the Reynolds number was comprehensively considered. The Strouhal number linked with the vortex shedding frequency was calculated through a function of the Reynolds number. The coefficient of the mean drag force was fitted as a new piecewise function of the Reynolds number, and its amplification resulted from the CF VIV was also taken into account. The oscillating drag and lift forces were modelled with classical van der Pol wake oscillators and their empirical parameters were determined based on the lock-in boundaries and the peak-amplitude formulas. A new peak-amplitude formula for the IL VIV was developed under the resonance condition with respect to the mass-damping ratio and the Reynolds number. When compared with the results from the experiments and some other prediction models, the present model could give good estimations on the vibration amplitudes and frequencies of the VIV both for elastically-mounted rigid and long flexible cylinders. The present model considering the influence of the Reynolds number could generally provide better results than that neglecting the effect of the Reynolds number.
Numerical and Experimental Study on Hydrodynamic Performance of A Novel Semi-Submersible Concept
Song GAO, Long-bin TAO, Yu-feng KOU, Chao LU, Jiang-long SUN
2018, 32(2): 144-156.   doi: 10.1007/s13344-018-0016-y
[Abstract](7) [FullText HTML](5) [PDF 13596KB](0)
The Multiple Column Platform (MCP) semi-submersible is a newly proposed concept, which differs from the conventional semi-submersibles, featuring centre column and middle pontoon. It is paramount to ensure its structural reliability and safe operation at sea, and a rigorous investigation is conducted to examine the hydrodynamic and structural performance for the novel structure concept. In this paper, the numerical and experimental studies on the hydrodynamic performance of MCP are performed. Numerical simulations are conducted in both the frequency and time domains based on 3D potential theory. The numerical models are validated by experimental measurements obtained from extensive sets of model tests under both regular wave and irregular wave conditions. Moreover, a comparative study on MCP and two conventional semi-submersibles are carried out using numerical simulation. Specifically, the hydrodynamic characteristics, including hydrodynamic coefficients, natural periods and motion response amplitude operators (RAOs), mooring line tension are fully examined. The present study proves the feasibility of the novel MCP and demonstrates the potential possibility of optimization in the future study.
SPH Numerical Modeling for the Wave–Thin Structure Interaction
Xi-feng REN, Zhao-chen SUN, Xing-gang WANG, Shu-xiu LIANG
2018, 32(2): 157-168.   doi: 10.1007/s13344-018-0017-x
[Abstract](7) [FullText HTML](5) [PDF 12720KB](0)
In this paper, a numerical model of 2D weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (WCSPH) is developed to simulate the interaction between waves and thin structures. A new color domain particle (CDP) technique is proposed to overcome difficulties of applying the ghost particle method to thin structures in dealing with solid boundaries. The new technique can deal with zero-thickness structures. To apply this enforcing technique, the computational fluid domain is divided into sub domains, i.e., boundary domains and internal domains. A color value is assigned to each particle, and contains the information of the domains in which the particle belongs to and the particles can interact with. A particle, nearby a thin boundary, is prevented from interacting with particles, which should not interact with on the other side of the structure. It is possible to model thin structures, or the structures with the thickness negligible with this technique. The proposed WCSPH module is validated for a still water tank, divided by a thin plate at the middle section, with different water levels in the subdomains, and is applied to simulate the interaction between regular waves and a perforated vertical plate. Finally, the computation is carried out for waves and submerged twin-horizontal plate interaction. It is shown that the numerical results agree well with experimental data in terms of the pressure distribution, pressure time series and wave transmission.
Experimental Investigation of the Resistance Performance and Heave and Pitch Motions of Ice-Going Container Ship Under Pack Ice Conditions
Chun-yu GUO, Chang XIE, Jin-zhao ZHANG, Shuai WANG, Da-gang ZHAO
2018, 32(2): 169-178.   doi: 10.1007/s13344-018-0018-9
[Abstract](7) [FullText HTML](6) [PDF 4504KB](0)
In order to analyze the ice-going ship’s performance under the pack ice conditions, synthetic ice was introduced into a towing tank. A barrier using floating cylinder in the towing tank was designed to carry out the resistance experiment. The test results indicated that the encountering frequency between the ship model and the pack ice shifts towards a high-velocity point as the concentration of the pack ice increases, and this encountering frequency creates an unstable region of the resistance, and the unstable region shifts to the higher speed with the increasing concentration. The results also showed that for the same speed points, the ratio of the pack ice resistance to the open water resistance increases with the increasing concentration, and for the same concentrations, this ratio decreases as the speed increases. Motion characteristics showed that the mean value of the heave motion increases as the speed increases, and the pitch motion tends to increase with the increasing speed. In addition, the total resistance of the full-scale was predicted.
Research on the Fatigue Flexural Performance of RC Beams Attacked by Salt Spray
Jiang-hong MAO, Fang-yuan XU, Wei-liang JIN, Jun ZHANG, Xi-xi WU, Cai-sheng CHEN
2018, 32(2): 179-188.   doi: 10.1007/s13344-018-0019-8
[Abstract](7) [FullText HTML](5) [PDF 3861KB](0)
The fatigue flexural performance of RC beams attacked by salt spray was studied. A testing method involving electro osmosis, electrical accelerated corrosion and salt spray was proposed. This corrosion process method effectively simulates real-world salt spray and fatigue loading exerted by RC components on sea bridges. Four RC beams that have different stress amplitudes were tested. It is found that deterioration by corrosion and fatigue loading reduces the fatigue life of the RC and decreases the ability of deformation. The fatigue life and deflection ability could be reduced by increasing the stress amplitude and the corrosion duration time. The test result demonstrates that this experimental method can couple corrosion deterioration and fatigue loading reasonably. This procedure may be applied to evaluate the fatigue life and concrete durability of RC components located in a natural salt spray environment.
Asymptotic Calculation of the Wave Trough Exceedance Probabilities in A Nonlinear Sea
Ying-guang WANG
2018, 32(2): 189-195.   doi: 10.1007/s13344-018-0020-2
[Abstract](7) [FullText HTML](5) [PDF 1023KB](0)
This paper concerns the calculation of the wave trough exceedance probabilities in a nonlinear sea. The calculations have been carried out by incorporating a second order nonlinear wave model into an asymptotic method. This is a new approach for the calculation of the wave trough exceedance probabilities, and, as all of the calculations are performed in the probability domain, avoids the need for long time-domain simulations. The proposed asymptotic method has been applied to calculate the wave trough depth exceedance probabilities of a sea state with the surface elevation data measured at the coast of Yura in the Japan Sea. It is demonstrated that the proposed new method can offer better predictions than the theoretical Rayleigh wave trough depth distribution model. The calculated results by using the proposed new method have been further compared with those obtained by using the Arhan and Plaisted nonlinear distribution model and the Toffoli et al.’s wave trough depth distribution model, and its accuracy has been once again substantiated. The research findings obtained from this study demonstrate that the proposed asymptotic method can be readily utilized in the process of designing various kinds of ocean engineering structures.
Aerodynamic Simulation of A Containership to Evaluate Cargo Configuration Effect on Frontal Wind Loads
2018, 32(2): 196-205.   doi: 10.1007/s13344-018-0021-1
[Abstract](7) [FullText HTML](5) [PDF 3826KB](0)
Fuel consumption has always been a matter of concern for ships propulsion. In this research we aim to develop computer models of several containership cargo stacking configurations and discuss an optimal configuration at a constant front wind speed. The paper presents the simulation results by using ANSYS CFX for a 1:4 scale Post-Panamax 9000 TEU containership. The ship is modelled in a cubic domain that contains unstructured mesh with details, in such a way that can demonstrate the influence of the container configuration on wind force. Also the numerical results are verified versus wind tunnel test data. An optimal stack configuration led to about 25% reduction in air resistance. It is proposed that in order to reduce the wind drag force and consequently reduce the fuel consumption and pollutant emissions, empty spaces between the cargo containers and unbalanced cargo distribution over the deck should be inhibited. Also, it is advised to make the cargo distribution on the most forward and aftward deck areas more streamlined.
A Track Initiation Method for the Underwater Target Tracking Environment
Dong-dong LI, Yang LIN, Yao ZHANG
2018, 32(2): 206-215.   doi: 10.1007/s13344-018-0022-0
[Abstract](7) [FullText HTML](5) [PDF 1711KB](0)
A novel efficient track initiation method is proposed for the harsh underwater target tracking environment (heavy clutter and large measurement errors): track splitting, evaluating, pruning and merging method (TSEPM). Track initiation demands that the method should determine the existence and initial state of a target quickly and correctly. Heavy clutter and large measurement errors certainly pose additional difficulties and challenges, which deteriorate and complicate the track initiation in the harsh underwater target tracking environment. There are three primary shortcomings for the current track initiation methods to initialize a target: (a) they cannot eliminate the turbulences of clutter effectively; (b) there may be a high false alarm probability and low detection probability of a track; (c) they cannot estimate the initial state for a new confirmed track correctly. Based on the multiple hypotheses tracking principle and modified logic-based track initiation method, in order to increase the detection probability of a track, track splitting creates a large number of tracks which include the true track originated from the target. And in order to decrease the false alarm probability, based on the evaluation mechanism, track pruning and track merging are proposed to reduce the false tracks. TSEPM method can deal with the track initiation problems derived from heavy clutter and large measurement errors, determine the target’s existence and estimate its initial state with the least squares method. What's more, our method is fully automatic and does not require any kind manual input for initializing and tuning any parameter. Simulation results indicate that our new method improves significantly the performance of the track initiation in the harsh underwater target tracking environment.
Hashin Failure Theory Based Damage Assessment Methodology of Composite Tidal Turbine Blades and Implications for the Blade Design
Guo-qing YU, Yi-ru REN, Tian-tian ZHANG, Wan-shen XIAO, Hong-yong JIANG
2018, 32(2): 216-225.   doi: 10.1007/s13344-018-0023-z
[Abstract](7) [FullText HTML](5) [PDF 4927KB](0)
A damage assessment methodology based on the Hashin failure theory for glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite blade is proposed. The typical failure mechanisms including the fiber tension/compression and matrix tension/compression are considered to describe the damage behaviors. To give the flapwise and edgewise loading along the blade span, the Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT) is adopted. In conjunction with the hydrodynamic analysis, the structural analysis of the composite blade is cooperatively performed with the Hashin damage model. The damage characteristics of the composite blade, under normal and extreme operational conditions, are comparatively analyzed. Numerical results demonstrate that the matrix tension damage is the most significant failure mode which occurs in the mid-span of the blade. The blade internal configurations including the box-beam, I-beam, left-C beam and right-C beam are compared and analyzed. The GFRP and carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) are considered and combined. Numerical results show that the I-beam is the best structural type. The structural performance of composite tidal turbine blades could be improved by combining the GFRP and CFRP structure considering the damage and cost-effectiveness synthetically.
Coupled Responses of Sewol, Twin Barges and Slings During Salvage
Zong YAO, Wei-ping WANG, Yan JIANG, Shi-hai CHEN
2018, 32(2): 226-235.   doi: 10.1007/s13344-018-0024-y
[Abstract](8) [FullText HTML](5) [PDF 3809KB](1)
Korean Sewol is successfully lifted up with the strand jack system based on twin barges. During the salvage operation, two barges and Sewol encounter offshore environmental conditions of wave, current and wind. It is inevitable that the relative motions among the three bodies are coupled with the sling tensions, which may cause big dynamic loads for the lifting system. During the project engineering phase and the site operation, it is necessary to build up a simulation model that can precisely generate the coupled responses in order to define a suitable weather window and monitor risks for the salvage operation. A special method for calculating multibody coupled responses is introduced into Sewol salvage project. Each body’s hydrodynamic force and moment in multibody configuration is calculated in the way that one body is treated as freely moving in space, while other bodies are set as fixed globally. The hydrodynamic force and moment are then applied into a numerical simulation model with some calibration coefficients being inserted. These coefficients are calibrated with the model test results. The simulation model built up this way can predict coupled responses with the similar accuracy as the model test and full scale measurement, and particularly generate multibody shielding effects. Site measured responses and the responses only resulted from from the simulation keep project management simultaneously to judge risks of each salvage stage, which are important for success of Sewol salvage.
Parametric Resonance Analyses for Spar Platform in Irregular Waves
He-zhen YANG, Pei-ji XU
2018, 32(2): 236-244.   doi: 10.1007/s13344-018-0025-x
[Abstract](7) [FullText HTML](5) [PDF 7723KB](0)
The parametric instability of a spar platform in irregular waves is analyzed. Parametric resonance is a phenomenon that may occur when a mechanical system parameter varies over time. When it occurs, a spar platform will have excessive pitch motion and may capsize. Therefore, avoiding parametric resonance is an important design requirement. The traditional methodology includes only a prediction of the Mathieu stability with harmonic excitation in regular waves. However, real sea conditions are irregular, and it has been observed that parametric resonance also occurs in non-harmonic excitations. Thus, it is imperative to predict the parametric resonance of a spar platform in irregular waves. A Hill equation is derived in this work, which can be used to analyze the parametric resonance under multi-frequency excitations. The derived Hill equation for predicting the instability of a spar can include non-harmonic excitation and random phases. The stability charts for multi-frequency excitation in irregular waves are given and compared with that for single frequency excitation in regular waves. Simulations of the pitch dynamic responses are carried out to check the stability. Three-dimensional stability charts with various damping coefficients for irregular waves are also investigated. The results show that the stability property in irregular waves has notable differences compared with that in case of regular waves. In addition, using the Hill equation to obtain the stability chart is an effective method to predict the parametric instability of spar platforms. Moreover, some suggestions for designing spar platforms to avoid parametric resonance are presented, such as increasing the damping coefficient, using an appropriate RAO and increasing the metacentric height.

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